Publications of Toomas Tammaru

I. Papers in international journals
      II. Butterflies and moths here and there
           III. Home-made theories                                     Back to main page

I. Papers in international journals (reversed chronological order )

Meister, H., Hämäläinen, R., Valdma, D., Martverk, M. and Tammaru, T. 2017. How to become larger: ontogenetic basis of among-population size differences in a moth. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, in press.

Lindman, L., Remm, J., Meister, H. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Host plant and habitat preference of Euphydryas maturna (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Melitaeinae): evidence from northern Europe. - Ecological Entomology, in press.

Meister, H., Esperk, T., Välimäki, P. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Evaluating the role and measures of juvenile growth rate: latitudinal variation in insect life histories. - Oikos, in press.

Meister, H., Tammaru, T., Sandre, S.-L. and Freitak, D. 2017. Sources of variance in immunological traits: evidence of congruent latitudinal trends across species. - Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2606-2615.

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Nemvalts, K., Sandre S.-L. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity. - Animal Reproduction Science , 181: 86-92.

Truuverk, A.; Õunap, E. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Epirrita pulchraria (Taylor, 1907) transferred to Malacodea, with notes on the phylogeny and ecology of the tribe Operophterini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae). - Zootaxa, 4258: 145-156.

Holm, S., Davis, R. B., Javoiš, J., Õunap, E., Kaasik, A., Molleman, F. and Tammaru, T. 2016. A comparative perspective on longevity: the effect of body size dominates over ecology in moths. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 29: 2422-2435.

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Kneidinger, N., Tammaru, T. 2016. Social behaviour of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) litters in captivity. - Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 182: 61-71.

Põldmaa, K., Kaasik, A., Tammaru, T., Kurina, O., Jügenstein, S., Teder, T. 2016. Polyphagy on unpredictable resources does not exclude host specialization: insects feeding on mushrooms. - Ecology, 97: 2824-2833.

Tiitsaar, A., Kaasik, A., Lindman, L., Stanevitš, T. and Tammaru, T. 2016. Host associations of Coenonympha hero (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in northern Europe: microhabitat rather than plant species. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 20: 265-275

Davis, RB., Javoiš, J., Kaasik, A., Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. 2016. An ordination of life-histories using morphological proxies: capital vs income breeding in insects. - Ecology , 97: 2112-2124

Junker, M., Zimmermann, M., Ramos, A. A., Gros, P., Konvicka, M., Neve, G., Rakosy, L., Tammaru, T., Castilho, R. and Schmitt, T. 2015. Three in one - multiple faunal elements within an endangered European butterfly species. - PLoS ONE 10: e142282

Meister, H., Lindman, L., Tammaru, T. 2015. Testing for local monophagy in the regionally oligophagous Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). - Journal of Insect Conservation 19: 691-702

Välimäki, P., Kivelä, S., Raitanen, J., Pakanen V.-M., Vatka, E., Mäenpää, M., Keret, N., Tammaru, T. 2015. Larval melanism in a geometrid moth: promoted neither by a thermal nor seasonal adaptation but desiccating environments. - Journal of Animal Ecology,84: 817-828

Tammaru, T., Vellau, H., Esperk, T., Teder, T. 2015. Searching for constraints by cross-species comparison: reaction norms for age and size at maturity in insects. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114: 296-307

Lindman, L., Remm, J., Saksing, K., Sõber, V., Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. 2015. Lycaena dispar on its northern distribution limit: an expansive generalist. - Insect Conservation and Diversity, 8: 3-16.

Teder, T., Vellau, H., Tammaru, T. 2014. Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects. - Evolution, 68: 3217-3228

Tomasson, K., Tammaru, T. and Kurina, O. 2014. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Estonia: results of the Estonian Malaise Trap Project. - Entomologica Fennica, 25: 142-156

Tison, J.-L., Nyström Edmark, V., Sandoval-Castellanos, E., Van Dyck, H., Tammaru, T., Välimäki, P., Dalén, L. and Gotthard, K. 2014. Signature of post-glacial expansion and genetic structure at the northern range margin of the speckled wood butterfly. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 113: 136-148

Kreitsberg, R., Barsiene, J., Freiberg, R., Andreikenaite, L., Tammaru, T., Rumvolt, K., Tuvikene, A. 2013. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 98: 227-235. DOI

Vellau, H., Leppik, E., Frerot, B. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Detecting a difference in reaction norms for size and time at maturation: pheromone strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Lepidoptera, Crambidae). - Evolutionary Ecology Research, 15: 589-599. PDF

Vellau H., Sandre S.-L., Tammaru, T. 2013. Effect of host species on larval growth differs between instars: the case of a geometrid moth. - European Journal of Entomology, 110: 599-604. PDF

Sandre, S.-L., Kaasik, A., Eulitz, U., Tammaru, T. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in a generalist insect herbivore with the combined use of direct and indirect cues. - Oikos, 112: 1626-1635. DOI

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Nagl, A., Ashford, K., Tammaru, T. 2013. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity. - Zoo Biology, 32: 387-393. DOI

Välimäki, P., Kivelä, S.M., Mäenpää, M.I., Tammaru, T. 2013. Latitudinal clines in alternative life histories in a geometrid moth. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26: 118-129. DOI

Teder, T., Tammaru, T., Kaasik, A. 2013. Exploitative competition and coexistence in a parasitoid assemblage. - Population Ecology, 55: 77-86. DOI

Davis, R.B., Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Gerhold, P., Tammaru, T. 2013. Degree of specialization is related to body size in herbivorous insects: a phylogenetic confirmation. - Evolution, 67: 583-589. DOI

Lindman, L., Johansson, B., Gotthard, K., Tammaru, T. 2013. Host plant relationships of an endangered butterfly, Lopinga achine (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in northern Europe. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 17: 375-383. DOI

Esperk, T., Stefanescu, C., Teder, T., Wiklund, C., Kaasik, A., Tammaru, T. 2013. Distinguishing between anticipatory and responsive plasticity in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly. - Evolutionary Ecology, 27: 315-332. DOI

Rannap, R., Lõhmus, A., Tammaru, T., Briggs, L., de Vries, W., Bibelriether, F. 2012. Northern natterjack toads (Bufo calamita) select breeding habitats that promote rapid development. - Behaviour, 149: 737-754. DOI

Tammaru, T., Teder, T. 2012. Why is body size more variable in stressful conditions: an analysis of a potential proximate mechanism. - Evolutionary Ecology, 26: 1421-1432. DOI

Davis, R.B., Javoiš, J., Pienaar, J., Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. 2012. Disentangling determinants of egg size in the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) using an advanced phylogenetic comparative method. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 210-219. DOI

Vellau, H., Tammaru, T. 2012. Larval crowding leads to unusual reaction norms for size and time at maturity in a geometrid moth. - European Journal of Entomology, 109: 181-186. PDF

Kodandaramaiah, U., Konvicka, M., Tammaru, T., Wahlberg, N., Gotthard, K. 2012. Phylogeography of the threatened butterfly, the woodland brown Lopinga achine (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): implications for conservation. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 16: 305-313. DOI

Castellanos, I., Barbosa, P., Zuria, I., Tammaru, T. and Christman, MC. 2011. Contact with caterpillar hairs triggers predator-specific defensive responses. - Behavioral Ecology, 22: 1020-1025. PDF

Remmel, T., Davison, J. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Quantifying predation on folivorous insect larvae: The perspective of life-history evolution. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104: 1-18. DOI

Molleman, F., Javoiš, J., Esperk, T., Teder, T., Davis, R.B. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Sexual differences in weight loss upon exclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera. - Journal of Insect Physiology, 57: 712-722. DOI

Javoiš, J., Molleman, F. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Quantifying income breeding: using geometrid moths as an example. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata,139: 187-196. DOI

Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Viidalepp, J. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of selected European Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - European Journal of Entomology, 108: 267-273. PDF

Sandre S.-L., Tammaru T. and Hokkanen, H. 2011. Pathogen resistance in the moth Orgyia antiqua: direct influence of host plant dominates over the effects of individual condition. - Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101: 107-114. PDF

Remmel, T. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Evidence for the higher importance of signal size over body size in aposematic signaling in insects. - Journal of Insect Science, 11: 4 DOI

Pöykkö, H. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Countergradient vs. cogradient variation in growth and diapause in a lichen feeding moth, Eilema depressum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23: 1278-1285. DOI

Esperk, T. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Size compensation in moth larvae: attention to larval instars. - Physiological Entomology, 35: 222-230. DOI

Wahlberg, N., Snäll, N., Viidalepp, J., Ruohomäki, K. and Tammaru, T. 2010. The evolution of female flightlessness among Ennominae of the Holarctic forest zone (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55: 929-938. DOI

Teder, T., Esperk, T., Remmel, T., Sang, A. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Counterintuitive size patterns in bivoltine moths: late-season larvae grow larger despite lower food quality. - Oecologia, 162: 117-125. DOI

Tammaru, T., Esperk, T., Ivanov, V. and Teder, T. 2010. Proximate sources of sexual size dimorphism in insects: locating constraints on larval growth schedules. - Evolutionary Ecology, 24: 161-175. DOI

Remmel, T. and Tammaru, T. 2009. Size-dependent predation risk in tree-feeding insects with different colouration strategies: a field experiment. - Journal of Animal Ecology, 78: 973-980. DOI

Cassel-Lundhagen, A., Tammaru, T., Windig, J.J., Ryrholm, N. and Nylin, S. 2009. Are peripheral populations special? Congruent patterns in two butterfly species. - Ecography, 32: 591-600. DOI

Remmel, T.; Tammaru, T. and Mägi, M. 2009. Seasonal mortality trends in tree-feeding insects: a field experiment. - Ecological Entomology, 34: 98-106. DOI

Besold, J., Schmitt, T. and Tammaru, T. Cassel-Lundhagen, A. 2008. Strong genetic impoverishment from the centre of distribution in southern Europe to peripheral Baltic and isolated Scandinavian populations of the pearly heath butterfly. - Journal of Biogeography, 35: 2090-2101. DOI

Teder, T., Tammaru, T. Esperk, T. 2008. Dependence of phenotypic variance in body size on environmental quality. - American Naturalist, 172: 223-232. DOI

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru, T., Vanatoa, A., Esperk, T. 2007. Maintenance of larval color polymorphism in Orgyia antiqua (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): evaluating the role of thermal adaptation. - Environmental Entomology, 36: 1303-1309. PDF

Tammaru, T. & Esperk, T. 2007. Growth allometry of immature insects: larvae do not grow exponentially. - Functional Ecology, 21: 1099-1105. DOI

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru, T. & Mänd, T. 2007. Size-dependent colouration in larvae of Orgyia antiqua (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): a trade-off between warning effect and detectability? - European Journal of Entomology, 104: 745-752. PDF

Esperk, T., Tammaru T & Nylin S 2007. Intraspecific variability in number of larval instars in insects. - Journal of Economic Entomology, 100: 627-645. PDF

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru T. & Esperk T., Julkunen-Tiitto R. & Mappes J. 2007 Carotenoid-based colour polyphenism in a moth species: search for fitness correlates. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 124: 269-277. DOI

Esperk T., Tammaru T., Nylin, S. & Teder, T. 2007. Achieving high sexual size dimorphism in insects: females add instars. - Ecological Entomology, 32: 243-256. DOI

Viidalepp, J., Tammaru, T., Snäll, N., Ruohomäki, K. & Wahlberg, N. 2007. Cleorodes Warren, 1894 does not belong in the tribe Boarmiini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - European Journal of Entomology, 104: 303-309. PDF

Snäll N., Tammaru T., Wahlberg N., Viidalepp J., Ruohomäki K., Savontaus M.-L. & Huoponen K. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Operophterini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a case study of the evolution of female flightlessness. - Biological Journal of Linnean Society , 92: 241-252. DOI

Mänd T., Tammaru T. & Mappes J. 2007. Size dependent predation risk in cryptic and conspicuous insects - Evolutionary Ecology, 21: 485-498. DOI

Javoiš J. & Tammaru T. 2006. The effect of egg load on readiness to accept a low-quality hostplant is weak and age dependent in a geometrid moth - Ecological Entomology, 31: 597-600. DOI

Esperk, T. & Tammaru, T. 2006. Determination of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in moths with a variable instar number: the role of additional instars. - European Journal of Entomology, 103: 575-586. PDF

Tammaru, T. & Javoiš, J. 2005. When being alive implies being safe: variation in mortality rates can cause oviposition selectivity to increase with age. - Oikos, 111: 649-653. DOI

Javoiš, J., Tammaru, T. & Käär, M. 2005. Oviposition in an eruptive moth species, Yponomeuta evonymellus, is insensitive to the population density experienced during the larval period. - Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 115: 379-386. DOI

Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. 2005. Sexual size dimorphism within species increases with body size in insects. - Oikos, 108: 321-334. DOI

Tammaru, T., Nylin, S., Ruohomäki, K. & Gotthard, K. 2004. Compensatory responses in lepidopteran larvae: a test of growth rate maximisation. - Oikos, 107: 352-362. DOI

Barbosa, P., Tammaru, T. & Caldas, A. 2004. Is parasitism of numerically dominant species in Macrolepidopteran assemblages independent of their abundance? - Basic and Applied Ecology, 5: 357-366. DOI

Esperk, T. & Tammaru, T. 2004. Does the "investment principle" model explain moulting strategies in Lepidopteran larvae? - Physiological Entomology, 29: 56-66. DOI

Javoiš, J. & Tammaru, T. 2004. Reproductive decisions are sensitive to cues of life expectancy: the case of a moth. - Animal Behaviour, 68: 249-255. DOI

Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. 2003. Short-term indirect interactions between two moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species mediated by shared parasitoids: the benefit of being scarce. - European Journal of Entomology, 100: 323-328. PDF

Cassel, A. & Tammaru, T. 2003. Allozyme variability in central, peripheral and isolated populations of the scarce heath (Coenonympha hero: Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae); implications for conservation. - Conservation Genetics, 4: 83-93. PDF

Tammaru, T., Esperk, T. & Castellanos, I. 2002. No evidence for costs of being large in females of Orgyia spp. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae): larger is always better. - Oecologia, 133: 430-438. PDF

Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. 2002. Cascading effects of variation in plant vigour on the relative performance of insect herbivores and their parasitoids. - Ecological Entomology, 27: 94-104. DOI

Tanhuanpää, M., Ruohomäki, K., Turchin, P., Ayres M. P., Bylund, H., Kaitaniemi, P., Tammaru, T. & Haukioja, E. 2002. Population cycles of the autumnal moth in Fennoscandia. - pp. 142-154 in: Population cycles. The case for trophic interactions (A.A.Berryman ed.). Oxford University Press. GOOGLE BOOKS

Teder, T. & Tammaru, T. 2001. Large larvae of a flush-feeding moth are not at a higher risk of parasitism: implications for the moth's life history. - European Journal of Entomology, 98: 277-282. PDF

Tammaru, T., Tanhuanpää, M., Ruohomäki, K. & Vanatoa, A. 2001. Autumnal moth - why autumnal? - Ecological Entomology, 26: 646-654. DOI

Tammaru, T. & Javoiš, J. 2000. Responses of ovipositing moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to host plant deprivation: life-history aspects and implications for population dynamics. - Environmental Entomology, 29: 1002-1010. PDF

Ruohomäki, K., Tanhuanpää, M., Ayres M. P., Kaitaniemi, P., Tammaru, T. & Haukioja, E. 2000. Causes of cyclicity of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) - grandiose theory and tedious practice. - Population Ecology, 42: 211-223. PDF

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. & Montola, M. 2000. Crowding-induced plasticity in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): weak evidence of specific modifications in reaction norms. - Oikos 90: 171-181. PDF

Gyllenberg, M., Hemminki, J., & Tammaru, T. (order alphabetical) 1999. Allee effects can both conserve and create spatial heterogeneity in population densities. - Theoretical Population Biology 56: 231-242. PDF

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C., Hill, J. K., Thomas, C. D., Descimon, H., Huntley, B., Kaila, L., Kullberg, J., Tammaru, T., Tennent, J., Thomas, J. A. & Warren, M. 1999. Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. - Nature 399: 579-583. PDF

Tammaru, T. & Hõrak, P. 1999. Should one invest more in larger broods? Not necessarily. - Oikos 85: 574-581. PDF

Teder, T., Tammaru, T. & Pedmanson, R. 1999. Patterns of host use in solitary parasitoid species: field evidence from a homogenous habitat. - Ecography 22: 79-86. PDF

Kaitaniemi, P., Ruohomäki, K., Tammaru, T. & Haukioja, E. 1999. Induced resistance of host tree foliage during and after a natural insect outbreak. - Journal of Animal Ecology 68: 382-389. DOI

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. & Saloniemi, I. 1999. Within-season variability of pupal period in the autumnal moth: a bet-hedging strategy? - Ecology, 80: 1666-1677. PDF

Tammaru, T. 1998. Determination of adult size in a folivorous moth: constraints at instar level? - Ecological Entomology 23: 80-89. PDF

Ruohomäki, K., Virtanen, T., Kaitaniemi, P. & Tammaru, T. 1997. Old mountain birches at high altitudes are prone to outbreaks of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - Environmental Entomology 26: 1096-1104. DOI

Tammaru, T. & Haukioja, E. 1996. Capital breeders and income breeders among Lepidoptera - consequences to population dynamics. - Oikos 77: 561-564. PDF

Tammaru, T., Kaitaniemi, P. & Ruohomäki, K. 1996. Realized fecundity in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): relation to body size and consequences to population dynamics. - Oikos 77: 407-416. PDF

Hõrak, P. & Tammaru, T. 1996. Between-year variation in breeding conditions biases heritability estimates for body size in birds. - Ardea 84: 127-135.

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. & Saikkonen, K. 1996. Components of male fitness in relation to body size in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). - Ecological Entomology 21: 185-192. PDF

Tammaru, T., Virtanen, T., Ruohomäki, K. & Kaila, L. 1995. Eupithecia veratraria Herrich-Schäffer, 1850 new to Scandinavia, with the redescription of E. veratraria ssp. arctica Viidalepp, 1974 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) - Nota Lepidopterologica 18: 297-303.

Tammaru, T., Kaitaniemi, P. & Ruohomäki, K. 1995. Oviposition choices of Epirrita autumnata in relation to its eruptive population dynamics. - Oikos 74: 296-304. PDF

Zhu J. W., Löfstedt, C., Philipp, P., Francke, W., Tammaru, T. & Haukioja, E. 1995. A sex pheromone component novel to the Geometridae identified from Epirrita autumnata. - Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 75: 159-164. DOI


II. Butterflies and moths here and there

Kaila, L., Pedmanson, R. & Tammaru, T. 1999. Eestis esineb kaks oblikavaksikuliiki (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). /Two species of Timandra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) occur in Estonia./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 11: 7-8 (in Estonian, with English summary).

Tammaru, T., Virtanen, T., Ruohomäki, K. 1996. Eupithecia veratraria (Geometridae) Pohjois-Norjassa. /Eupithecia veratraria (Geometridae) in northern Norway./ - Baptria 21: 123-126 (in Finnish, with English summary).

Tammaru, T., Viidalepp, J., Pedmanson, R. 1994. Horisme aemulata tavattu Utsjoelta - mistä se oli peräisin? /Horisme aemulata [Lepidoptera, Geometridae] found at Utsjoki - where did it come from?/ - Baptria 19: 64-68 (in Finnish, with English summary).

Skvortsov, V., Tammaru, T. 1994. Cucullia praecana Eestis: levik, eluviis ja arengujärkude kirjeldus. /Cucullia praecana Ev. [Lepidoptera, Noctuidae] in Estonia, with description of the preimaginal stages./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 9: 9-10 (in Estonian, with English summary).

Tammaru, T. 1993. Kassitapusuru sisserännetest Eestisse, eriti 1992. aastal. /On immigration of Agrius convonvuli L. [Lepidoptera: Sphingidae] into Estonia, especially in the year 1992./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 8: 11-15 (in Estonian, with English summary).


III. Home-made theories

Tammaru, T. 1999. Hea ja halva mäluga elukäiguomadused: evolutsioonilisi järeldusi. /Life histrory traits with good or bad memory: implications for evolutionary theory./ - Schola Biotheoretica XXV: 98-100 (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1998. Diskreetsed kasvujärgud putukavastsetel: ontogeneesi iseärasus, mis piirab elukäiguevolutsiooni. /Discrete instars of insect larvae: a peculiarity of ontogenesis which posies a constraint on life-history evolution./ - Schola Biotheoretica XXIV: 107-110 (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1997. Mitmeaastase elutsükliga putukad - metapopulatsioon ajas? /Insects with a multiannual life cycle: a metapopulation in time?/ - Schola Biotheoretica XXIII: 12-14, Tartu (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1995. Liblikas tunneb ära rööviku toidutaime - mis siis kui ei ja miks ei? /A moth selects for its host plant - what if not and why not?/ - Schola Biotheoretica XXI: 37-38, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF

Tammaru, T. 1993. W. Petersen as a biologist-theoretician. - In: Lectures in theoretical biology: the second stage. Estonian Academy of Sciences. Tallinn, pp. 122 - 127

Tammaru, T. 1993. Biparentality as a creator of non-uniformity in temporal structure of a population. - Folia Baeriana 6. Estonian Academy of Sciences. Tartu, pp. 158-163.

Tammaru, T. 1991. Uniparentaalse paljunemise ökoloogilisi aspekte. /Ecological aspects of the uniparental reproduction./ - Schola Biotheoretica XVII: 31-38, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF

Tammaru, T. 1990. Surmast geenivaliku teooria valguses. /Death in the light of the gene selection theory/. - Schola Biotheoretica XVI: 12-17, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF